Minggu, 16 November 2014

Tense's Structure

Simple Present Tense
Pattern : S + V1 (s/es) + O/C or S + To be (is/am/are) + O/C
                 s/es use for he,she,it if they be a subject , is use for she,he,it , am for I , and are for they,you,we
Functions : Expressing habbit/daily activity
                     Expressing fact
                     Expressing general truth
                     Expressing future
                     Describing object/thing
Time Marker : today , twice a week / once a week . twice a month / once a month , today, this Sunday/this Monday,this Tuesday.etc , usually/often/seldom/sometimes

Present Continues Tense
Pattern : S + tobe (is/am/are) + V+ing +O/C
Functions : Expressing ongoing/progressive activities
                     Expressing general activity in a certain period
                     Expressing future
Time marker : now , this time , this semester , etc

Present Perfect Tense
Pattern : S_+ has/have + V3 + O/C
                Has use for she,he,it , have use for I,you,they,we
Function : For expressing an activity that has been completely done before now (untuk mengungkapkan suatu kegiatan yang telah selesai dilakukan sebelum waktu sekarang)
Time Marker : since , since  5 minnutes ago

Present Perfect Continues Tense
Pattern : S+ has/have + been + V+ing+O/C
Function : For expressing an activity that was begun in the oast time and now it is still in progress (untuk menyatakan sebuah aktivitas yang telah dimulai diwaktu lampau dan masih berlangsung sampai sekarang)
Time marker : for ,  for 5 years

Simple Past Tense
Pattern: S=V2+O/C or S+to be (was/were) + O/C
Function : for expressing an activity that was done in the past time (untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang dilakukan di waktu lampau)
Time marker : ago,last night/last month/last year/last summer/last spring/etc , yesterday

Past Continues Tense
Pattern : S+ to be (was/were) + v + ing + o/c
Function : for expressing an ongoing activities that was happening at a certain time in the past (untuk mengungkapkan sebuah kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di waktu lampau)
Time marker : at 7 PM last night (spesifict time)

Past Perfect Tense
Pattern : S + Had + V3+ O/C
Function : For expressing an activity that had been done before another activity in the past time (untuk mengungkapkan suatu kegiatan yang telah dikerjakan sebelum kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau)
Time marker : when , while
Example : I had written a letter when Mom Came
Kalimat pertama menggunakan past perfect tense setelah kata when menggunakan kalimat past tense
Or
While my mother came , I had written a letter
Kalimat pertama setelah kata while menggunakan past tense , lalu diikuti kalimat past perfect

Past Perfect Continues
Pattern : S+had+been+V+ing +O/C
Function : For expressing an activity that had been begun before an activity in the past and when the second activity took place the first activity was still in progress (untuk mengungkapkan suatu kegiatan yang telah dimulai dilakukan sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau, dan pada saat kegiatan lain tersebut terjadi, kegiatan pertama adi masih sedang berlangsung)
Time marker : when + for , while + for
Example : Tim had been watching TV for an hour when Mom Came
Kalimat pertama menggunakan kalimat past continues tense , setelah kata when menggunakan past tense
Or
While my mom came , I had been watching TV for an hour

Simple Future Tense
Pattern : S+will/be going to + V1+O/C
Function : For expressing an activity that will be done in the future time (untuk mengekpresikan suatu kegiatan yang akan dilakukan di waktu yang akan datang)
Time Marker : Next holiday/next month/next week/next summer/etc , tomorrow

Simple Future Continues Tense
Pattern : S+will +be+v+ing+O/C
Function : For expressing an activity which will be in progress at a certain time in the future (untuk mengungkapkan suatu kegiatan yang akan sedang dilakukan pada waktu tertentu di waktu yang akan datang)
Time marker : At 1 PM tomorrow (spesifict time)

Future Perfect Tense
Pattern : S + will + have = V3+O/C
Function : dimanfaatkan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian/perbuatan yang sudah berawal pada masa lampau dan akan segera berakhir ataupun tidak terjadi seperti tersebut di atas pada masa yang akan datang
Time marker : by the of this year/by the of this month / by the end of this month / by the end of this week
Example : They will have corrected their mistake by the end of this month
Future Perfect Continues Tense
Pattern : S+will+have+been+v+ing+O/C
Function : Dimanfaatkan untuk mengungkapkan suatu peristiwa atau kejadian yang diawali pada masa lampau namun masih tetap berlangsung hingga masa yang akan datang
Time marker : for + by the end / by  the time

Example : I will have been studying lesson for one hour by the time mother comes home